Table 1@Official Views on Long Term Climate Targets (summary) @ @
Party*1OrganizationEmission Reduction Target
( ANNEX I Parties*2)
Emission Reduction Target
Upper limit of GHG Concentration in the Atmosphere Limit to Global Temperature Increase
JapanSub-Committee for International Climate Change Strategy, Central Environment Council, Ministry of the Environment@May 2005(so far only Coucil,not Government Policy)
Substantial Reduction of GHG*3 Emission (10% reduction by 2020, 50% by 2050, 75% by 2100 from 1990 level) Significantly less than 550ppm (GHG, 475ppm)2 above pre-industrial level*5
GermanyWBGU Oct.2003iadvice from a government founded body. Official policy is to follow EU targets, if a 30% reduction is agreed upon.j At least 20% reduction of CO2 emission due to fossil fuel *4by 2020 from 1990 level45-60% reduction of CO2 emission due to fossil fuel*4 by 2050 from 1990 level450ppm (CO2)2 above pre-industrial level*5
UKDefra in consultation with other government departments60% reduction of CO2 due to fossil fuel*4 by 2050 from present level||||||See EUSee EU
FranceMIES March 2004CO2 emission target for France: 32 Mt-C*5 by 2050 (75% reduction from 2000 level)CO2 emission target 3Gt-C*6 (about 50% reduction from 2000 level) Per capita GHG target: 0.5t-C*6 450ppm (CO2)2 above pre-industrial level*5
SwedenSwedish Environmental Protection Agency Nov. 2002 Per capita GHG target: 4.5t-CO2 by 2050 (about 50% reduction from present level)Per Capita GHG target:
1t-CO2for stabilization at 450ppm*8
550ppm(GHG, CO2 equivalent)3 above pre-industrial level*5
DenmarkMinistry of Environment and Energy,1996 50% reduction of CO2 emission by 2030 from 1990 level(Target for Denmark)
450ppm(CO2 )
EUCouncil Meeting March 2005 15-30% reduction of GHG emission by 2020, and 60-80% by 2050 compared to the baseline envisaged in the Kyoto ProtocolGHG emissions to peak within 2 decades, at least 15% and perhaps by as much as 50% reduction of GHG emission by 2050 from 1990 level 550 ppm (GHG, CO2 equivalent)2 above pre-industrial level*5
*P Countries that have already expressed Long-term Climate Targets. In order of the volume of CO2 emission in 2002.
*2 "Annex I Parties" are "developed countries" that consist of members of OECD (excluding South Korea and Mexico) and geconomies in transitionh. Some of the countries define the reduction target in terms of "developed countries" instead of "Annex I Parties".
*3 6 Greenhouse gasses as defined in the Kyoto Protocol: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N20), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs),
@perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).
*4 CO2 emission from combustion of coal, oil and natural gas, (not including CO2 emission from industrial processes and waste management).
*5 the pre-industrial era, i.e., before the society was industrialized (about 1850)}
*6 ton carbon, 1t-C=44/12 t-CO2
*7 not expressed as target